II. Unified international HMB rules: Category "Duel" 1 vs 1

Battle of the Nations1. GENERAL REGULATIONS

1.1. The category “Duel” 1 vs 1 is represented by the fights, which are held in accordance with the Unified international HMB rules, taking into account the number of stout blows delivered with the combat part of the weapons to the kill zone of an opponent. 

a) Important! The kill zone excludes open face areas, the groin, feet, the back part of the neck, and the back of the knees.

1.2. There are no weight categories in the “1 vs 1” category. 

1.3. The panel of referees includes the knight marshal (chief referee), field marshals (referees), and a secretary.

a) Important! In case of any disagreements a deciding vote belongs to the knight marshal.

1.4. The fights of the category “Duel” 1 vs 1 are held on the hard lists, from 15 to 40 m of length, from 7 to 20 m wide. Height of the sides of the lists is from 0.9 to 1.2 m. 

1.5. The fight consists of 3 rounds, different weapons are used for each of them:

  • 1st round – 'Long sword”, it lasts for 1.5 min. The winner is the one who has delivered more stout blows to the opponent during the round.
  • 2nd round – “Sword-Buckler”, it consists of 3 bouts and each bout lasts to the first three stout blows. The winner is the one who wins the majority of the bouts in the round.
  • 3rd round – “Sword-Shield”, it lasts for 1.5 min. The winner of the round is the one who has delivered more stout blows to the opponent during the round. 

1.6. Characteristics of weapons for the “Duel” 1 vs 1 category: 

1.6.1. Characteristics of the weapons for the “Long sword” round:

  • The length of the blade (from a hilt to the tip) - from 80 to 100 cm;
  • The length of the handle (including a hilt and a pommel) - from 20 to 35 cm;
  • The weight is from 1,500 to 2,300 g.
  • The radius of rounding of the tip is about 10 mm (it has to correspond to a coin 20 mm in diameter).

1.6.2. Characteristics of the weapons for the “Sword-Shield” round:

  • The length of the blade (from a hilt to the tip) - from 60 to 80 cm;
  • The length of the handle (including a hilt and a pommel) - from 12 to 20 cm;
  • The weight is from 1,200 to 1,500 g.
  • The radius of rounding of the tip is about 10 mm (it has to correspond to a coin 20 mm in diameter).
  • The cutting edge of a blade is not less than 2 mm thick and rounded.
  • The maximum length of a shield is up to 75 cm.

1.6.3. Characteristics of the weapons for the “Sword-Buckler” round:

  • The length of the blade (from a hilt to the tip) - from 60 to 80 cm;
  • The length of the handle (including a hilt and a pommel) - from 12 to 20 cm;
  • The weight is from 1,000 to 1,500 g.
  • The radius of rounding of the tip is about 10 mm (it has to correspond to a coin 20 mm in diameter).
  • The cutting edge of a blade is not less than 2 mm thick and rounded;
  • The maximum length of a buckler is up to 35 cm.

2. PRINCIPLES OF CONDUCTING FIGHTS IN THE CATEGORY “DUEL” 1 vs 1 

2.1. For each stout blow to the opponent’s kill zone the fighter who has delivered it is awarded with one point. 

2.2. A stroke is counted when it was deliberate and was not blocked by the opponent’s defensive action with a shield or sword. 

2.3. The strokes are counted during the round. The fighter, who has got the more points or, according to the conditions of battle in the 2nd round, reaches a certain sum of points, becomes a winner of the round. 

2.4. The fighter who gained victory in 2 or 3 rounds wins the battle. If the score in rounds is draw, the disputable round continues till one of the fighters gains 3 points. 

2.5. “Technical victory” with a score 3-0 is awarded to one of the fighters in the following cases:

2.5.1. If an opponent refuses to fight before the beginning of a duel, does not come in time to the lists on call of the knight marshal or fails to prepare his equipment within the time set by the knight marshal.

Not coming to the fight will result in a warning (one Yellow card). If the fighter is suspended from further participation in the fights (due to injury or disqualification), the “technical victory” is also awarded to his opponent. 

2.5.2. If the opponent cannot continue fighting because of “an accidental injury”. 

a) Important! If the fighter cannot continue the bout due to an injury, resulting from violations of the rules by his opponent, the latter receives a double warning (two yellow cards) and is removed from participation in the fight. "Technical victory" is awarded to the fighter who was injured.

2.5.3. If an opponent gets two warnings within the fights (two Yellow cards).

2.5.4. In case of appearance of factors, which, according to the knight marshal, put obstacles in the way of fights continuation, namely armor or weapons breakage, if it cannot be fixed or replaced in the allotted time (not more than 1 minute).

3. AUTHORIZED FIGHTING TECHNIQUES 

3.1. «Sword-Shield» & «Sword-Buckler»: 

  • cutting strokes at the opponents kill zone delivered with the cutting edge of the weapons;
  • blocking the enemy’s strokes with a shield or a blade;
  • pushing or pressing the opponent with a shield or shoulder;
  • hitting with the plane of a shield;
  • repulsion of a blade, a shield, or opponent’s arms and hands with the shield’s plane or the shield’s edge;
  • repulsion of the opponent’s shield or arms with your arms;
  • hooking the opponent’s shield with your shield;
  • hitting with the shield edge in an armed hand or body (above the waist and below the neck) of the opponent;
  • overlapping of the opponent’s shield with your own shield.

3.2. “Long sword”: 

  • cutting strokes at the opponents kill zone delivered with the cutting edge of the weapons;
  • blocking the opponent’s strokes with the blade of your weapon;
  • pressing and pushing the opponent with your blade or arms;
  • repulsion of the opponent’s arms with your arms.

4. PROHIBITED FIGHTING TECHNIQUES

4.1. «Sword-Shield» & «Sword-Buckler»:

  • thrusting with a bladed weapon (any thrusts);
  • strokes at the opponent’s unauthorized kill zone;
  • strokes at the fallen opponent or the one who is rising;
  • strokes at the opponent who has lost his weapons;
  • hitting with the edge of the shield below the belt, in the opponent’s head and neck;
  • strokes with your head;
  • kicking or kneeing your opponent;
  • back heels, wrestling throws and clinches;
  • punches and elbow strokes;
  • strokes with a hilt or pommel of a weapon;
  • grabbing the opponent’s body, head and limbs, as well as grabbing his equipment (including a sword and a shield) with your hands. 

4.2. “Longs word”:

  • thrusting with a bladed weapon (any thrusts);
  • strokes at the opponent’s unauthorized kill zone;
  • strokes at the fallen opponent or the one who is rising;
  • strokes at the opponent who has lost his weapons;
  • hitting with the edge of the shield below the belt, in the opponent’s head and neck;
  • strokes with your head;
  • kicking or kneeing your opponent;
  • back heels, wrestling throws and clinches;
  • punches and elbow strokes;
  • strokes with a hilt or pommel of a weapon;
  • grabbing the opponent’s body, head and limbs, as well as grabbing his equipment (including a sword and a shield) with your hands.

5. PENALTIES

5.1. Rebuke is a sanction applied to a fighter in the course of one fight in the following cases:

5.1.1. A fighter falls as a result of an active legal attack from his opponent.

5.1.2. Any part of protective equipment breaks or malfunctions, which, on the knight marshal’s point of view, doesn’t allow the fighter to continue the battle.

If this malfunction can be eliminated within the time, defined by the knight marshal, the battle can be continued 

a) Important! If the fighter’s weapon (a sword, a shield etc.) is broken, the sanction will not be imposed.

5.1.3. The fighter loses his weapon during the battle.

5.1.4. The fighter is passive in the battle.

b) Important! Passive behavior is considered to be refusal from active actions against your opponent during a long period of time (not less than 30 sec).

5.1.5. Going out of or falling out of the lists.

c) Important! Applying a rebuke sanction to one of the fighters is accompanied with awarding his opponent 3 additional points.

d) Important! The fighter who gets three rebukes in a battle automatically loses it. And his opponent is awarded with “a clean win”.

e) Important! Rebuke sanctions are NOT stated in the record of the tournament or in the personal cards of the fighters.

5.2. Oral warning is a sanction imposed on the fighter for insignificant rules violation, it is intended to draw the fighter’s attention to his actions; it is not stated in the record.

5.3. Warning, or the Yellow card, is a sanction imposed on the fighter for rules violation and it should be stated in the record of the competition. It affects the rating of the team and the fighter. The fighter can get maximum two yellow cards within the event.

The Yellow card is given in the following cases: 

5.3.1. For using any prohibited techniques stated in Chapter 4 “Prohibited fighting techniques”. 

5.3.2. For actions not listed in Chapter 3 “Authorized fighting techniques”. 

5.3.3. For unsportsmanlike behavior, boorishness, faul language, shouting at the referees, the opponents and spectators.

5.3.4. For starting the fight before the command “To the fight!”

5.3.5. For continuing an attack after the command “Stop the fight!”

5.3.6. For ignoring the knight marshal’s commands. 

a) Important! For all the violations mentioned above the fighter can get one or two yellow cards at once, depending on the gravity of the violation at the knight marshal’s discretion.

5.4. Disqualification, or the Red card, is a sanction imposed on a fighter for gross or systematic (the second Yellow card) violation of the rules. It should be stated in the record of the competition. The sanction implies the fighter’s removal from the further participation in the competition and his substitution with a substitute fighter of the team. ONLY the knight marshal of the tournament has the right to disqualify fighters.

Grounds for disqualification:

5.4.1. Systematic violation of the rules, when a fighter gets two yellow cards within the event.

5.4.2. Injuring an opponent using a prohibited fighting technique.

5.4.3. Gross and systematic dissents with the referees, groundless appeals against their decisions, insults to the opponents or disrespectful behavior towards them, as well as other parties of the competition. 

a) Important! Each red card which is imposed on the fighter automatically becomes the team’s red card.

6. FILING an APPEAL

6.1. In case of a well-reasoned disagreement with the decision of the referees and the knight marshal, the captain of the team or an officially (in a written form) appointed assistant, the fighter’s representative, can make a protest. The protest is to be written only in an “Appeal form”, which can be given to the team captain by event organizers. The number of these forms is brought under regulation and decided by organizers of every event. 

6.2. The protest is to be well-grounded and can be made in the following cases: 

6.2.1. Removal of the fighter out of the battle with violation of the rules. 

6.2.2. Unregistered by the referees important strokes at the kill zone, seriously affecting the outcome of the round. 

6.2.3. Unregistered violations made in the course of the fight, which are to be penalized with the sanctions. 

6.2.4. Unregistered violation of the rules with the imposition of the yellow or red cards, and any gross violations of the rules. 

6.3. The protest should be made after the fight is over and the fighters are asked whether they have any claims. The captain or a representative of a fighter who has been observing the fight, makes a well-reasoned protest personally to the knight marshal. The protest is to be considered within 10-25 minutes and before the next fight. 

6.4. Possible outcomes of the protest consideration: 

6.4.1. General repeated round. 

6.4.2. Reconsideration of the round score.  

6.4.3. Reconsideration of the fight score.

6.4.4. Imposition of the yellow or red card on the fighters. 

6.5. The knight marshal (in case of disputable situations) and captains of the teams if they are reasonably not satisfied with the decision of the knight marshal, can address the Supreme Appeal Commission, which consists of the organizers of the event.

The re-appeal is to be considered by the Supreme Appeal Commission within 3 hours, it includes watching the video materials and interviewing the panel of referees, after that the final decision is to be taken.


Regulations for the fights of the category “Duel” 1 vs 1

1. The knight marshal (chief referee) invites two fighters to the lists, then asks two other fighters to get ready.

a) Important! Two invited fighters have to come to a special place near the lists, where they go through a pre-combat historical, esthetic and technical inspection of equipment. The functions of the historical and technical committee of the event are performed by the referees and knight marshal.

2. The invited fighters have to appear on the lists within 1 minute. 

b) Important! The knight marshal may ask the fighters to enter the lists with their helmets off. After the verification of fighters’ identities via the list of stated participants, they will be given 30 seconds to put on their helmets and be ready for the fight. The seconds who are behind the lists’ barrier, can help the men to put on the helmets. The fighters have no right to leave the lists before the start of the fight. This measure is necessary to prevent the possibility of substitution.

c) Important! If the fighters appear on the lists more than 3 minutes after they’ve been invited or come unprepared, the opposing team is awarded a "technical victory".

3. The knight marshal asks about the readiness of the marshals and the fighters. 

4. The knight marshal signals the start of the first round (where the long sword is used), giving the command "To the fight!" 

5. The linesmen (from 4 to 8 people) observe the fight and count the stout blows inflicted on the fighters by each other and delivered with the combat part of the weapons in the kill zone. The referees also record the violations, but do not interfere in the course of the fight. 

d) Important! Only the knight marshal can interfere in the course of the fight. 

6. The knight marshal observes the general course of the fight and assesses the actions of the fighters on the lists. 

7. The timekeeper monitors timing of the rounds. 

8. The first round is to be finished after 1.5 minutes and the command of the knight marshal “Stop the fight!” 

e) Important! If the knight marshal sees the need to stop the fight temporarily, the timekeeper stops the counting of the time assigned for the round.

9. The fighters return to their original positions on the lists and change the weapons for the second round. 

10. 1 min. is assigned to change the weapons. 

11. While the fighters are changing their weapons, the linesmen come to them and ask whether they have any claims to the opponent or the panel of referees. The fighter has the right to ask them to correct one or another inaccuracy in the rules following, as well as file a protest within the rules of the category “Duel” 1 vs 1. 

12. All the referees working on the lists come to the knight marshal and report the round score and the observed violations, if any. Relying on the reports of the referees and his own observations, the knight marshal decides on the result of the round, considers the protests (if any), gives the oral warning or the yellow or red cards to a fighter, announces the result of the round. 

13. The Secretariat has to record the results of the round in the ratings. After the round, the victory in the round, points for the round and victory are to be recorded.

14. The yellow or red cards have to be mentioned in the ratings of the fighters.

15. The second and third rounds, “sword and buckler” and “sword-shield” are held according to the above scheme.

16. After the three rounds are over, the winner of the fight is to be announced.

17. The winner gets the main point for the rating, 1 point for winning the fight. All other points of the rating (for winning the rounds, medium points for the rounds, loss of points due to the yellow cards) are taken into account only when the fighters have an equal number of points for the win and provide a broadened picture of the fights.


Disclaimer

Above rules were originated by "Battle of the Nations" - World Championship of full contact historical medieval battles and adopted for North America by Scallagrims Medieval Martial Arts Centre. Scallagrims Medieval Martial Arts Centre does not take any liability for any use of above rules outside of its training sessions and events.

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